GATAČKO POLJE  -  ГАТАЧКО ПОЉЕ

The Devon Karst Research Society.
The Karstography of the DINARIC KARST IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Part 5.3.  Eastern Herzegovina.
GATAČKO POLJE  -  ГАТАЧКО ПОЉЕ
Gacko Polje, BiH-RS Trebinje Region - Gacko Municipality.

Updated 19 May 2007. (Under initial construction.)

ARCHIVE MAP OF GATAČKO POLJE,

after Philipp Ballif,..(1896)
"Wasserbauten in Bosnien und der Hercegovina.
1. Theil - Meliorationsarbeiten und Cisternen im Karstgebiete" 

1.1.1....GENERAL HISTORICAL INFORMATION.

In his book "Wasserbauten in Bosnien und der Hercegovina.  1. Theil - Meliorationsarbeiten und Cisternen im Karstgebiete",*..Philipp Ballif, (1896) gives us an analysis of the polje-floor useage at the time of his survey of the area. He reports that in general, Gatačko Polje has a clayey soil which, in places, has a good covering of humus. 50% of the polje-floor was arable land given over to agriculture; 30% was given over for meadows; 20% was pasture given over for grazing.
Below, we offer the following information from this book.

ARCHIVE MAP OF GATAČKO POLJE,.after Philipp BALLIF, 1896.
Geographical preparation by H. Wagner & E. Debes, Leipzig.




ARCHIVE MAP OF GATAČKO POLJE. GP1.4.
"Tafel VI..Situations-Plan der Meliorationsanlage im Gacko polje und der Thalsperre bei Kline."
English Translation =.."Table VI. Plan of the Melioration Areas in Gatačko Polje and the Barrier near Klinje."...Maßstab / Scale =  1 : 75 000.
[Ed. Note :  Many of the place names have either slightly or completely changed, over the intervening 111 years.]
(Map : Printed by J. B. Obernetter, München...Reproduced from "Wasserbauten in Bosnien und der Hercegovina.  1. Theil - Meliorationsarbeiten und Cisternen im Karstgebiete", facing p. 56.)


ZEICHEN-ERKLÄRUNG / KEY TO SYMBOLS USED :
1.  "ausgeführte Hauptcanäle"  =  ---- main canal.
2.  "Bewässerungs Canäle"  =  Irrigation canal.
3.  "Die Bewässerungsrinnen sind nicht eingezeichnet"  =  The irrigation gutters ---- not ----
4.  "Dämme"  =  Embankment.
5.  "im Detail meliorirte Flächen"  =  Particularly meliorated areas.
6.  "Melioration begonnen"  =  Melioration ----
7.  "Strassen"  =  Road.
8.  "Reitwege"  =  Bridle-path.
9.  "Gemeindegrenzen"  =  Municipal Territory boundary.
KEY / LEGEND TO OTHER ANNOTATIONS IN THE MAP :

10.  "Grosses polje"  =  Great Polje.
11.  "Kleines polje"  =  Small Polje.
12.  "Qu."  =  Quelle  =  Spring.
13....¤.1004  =  Elevation Spot-heights (metres asl.).

The above Archive Map of Gatačko Polje is a wonderful piece of work giving much information in a very useable format and scale. With the notable exceptions of the Klinje Dam and Reservoir and the major drainage ditches in the main polje area, the details concerning the location and layout of the remainder of the network of melioration works are particularly useful insofar as most of the surviving evidence on the ground is either completely gone or, through disuse, is in such a state of neglect as to have almost disappeared under vegetation growth.


Archive Photo GP1.5.  "Fig. 2. Agricultural Centre in Gacko."
An Archive view showing in the foreground a part of the north-western area of Gatačko Polje, as observed from the eastern perimeter above Gacko.
In the background is the Gatačka Bjelašnica Mountain massif. We have not determined whether any of these Austro-Hungarian structures still exist.
(Photo :  Printed by J. B. Obernetter, München...Reproduced from "Wasserbauten in Bosnien und der Hercegovina.  1. Theil - Meliorationsarbeiten und Cisternen im Karstgebiete", Tafel XIII. Fig 2.)

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KLINJE DAM & RESERVOIR,

after Philipp Ballif,..(1896)
"Wasserbauten in Bosnien und der Hercegovina.

1. Theil - Meliorationsarbeiten und Cisternen im Karstgebiete" 
1.1.2....HISTORICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE KLINJE DAM.

In his book "Wasserbauten in Bosnien und der Hercegovina.  1. Theil - Meliorationsarbeiten und Cisternen im Karstgebiete",*..Philipp Ballif, (1896) gives us a detailed construct about the "Kline Dam" (= Klinje Dam).


 
 
 

ARCHIVE PLAN-VIEW MAP OF KLINJE DAM. GP1.6. (left) :
"Tafel XXI..Fig.1. Detailsituation der Reservoiranlage bei Kline."
English Translation =.."Table XXI.  Fig. 1. Detailed Plan of the Reservoir Layout near Klinje."
Maßstab / Scale =  1 : 2 000.
(Map : Printed by J. B. Obernetter, München.
Reproduced from "Wasserbauten in Bosnien und der Hercegovina.
1. Theil - Meliorationsarbeiten und Cisternen im Karstgebiete")
 

THE KARST RIVER WITH 11 NAMES :
This construction impounded the combined surface water flows of the Vrba Potok, the Tanjevica Potok and the intermittent Dramešina Potok at the point of their natural confluence where they combine to form the Rijeka Mušnica.
The "ponornice" Rijeka Mušnica then flows down into Gatačko (Veliko) Polje, across which it takes a less-than-direct route to the far side before entering the ponor zones of the Gatačko (Donje) Polje.
Here it disappears into various ponors before appearing again at the surface in Cerničko Polje, where it becomes the "ponornice" Rijeka Ključke.
After only 300m., it sinks again into more ponors before appearing again in Fatničko Polje as the "ponornice" Rijeka Oboda.
After flowing across the polje-floor, it again sinks into ponors after which it then reappears as the "ponornice" Rijeka Trebišnjica and as the Rijeka Bregava, (which eventually flows into the Rijeka Neretva).
The "ponornice" Rijeka Trebišnjica then flows in different directions and appears variously as
i)..the Rijeka Dubrovačka, before flowing almost immediately into the Adriatic Sea, and
ii).the Rijeka, in the Deranjsko Depression and which eventually flows into the Rijeka Neretva.
iii) the Rijeka Krupa, in the Svitava Depression and which eventually flows into the Rijeka Neretva.
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Archive Photo GP1.7. (left) :  "Fig. 1. Reservoir near Kline."
An Archive view showing the original construction of the Klinje Dam and Reservoir.
This structure has been slightly modified on the outflow side but still continues to operate to the original performance-specification!
It was built to exacting engineering standards to survive and perform for a very long time.
(Photo :  Printed by J. B. Obernetter, München.
Reproduced from "Wasserbauten in Bosnien und der Hercegovina.  1. Theil - Meliorationsarbeiten und Cisternen im Karstgebiete", Tafel XIII. Fig 1.)

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